Fault summary of fiber optic transceivers

Table of Contents

There are many types of optical transceivers, but the fault judgment methods are basically the same. To sum up, the faults that occur in optical transceivers are as follows:

1. Power light is off: power failure

2. The link light of the optical path
is not on. The fault may be as follows:
A. Check whether the optical fiber line is broken.
B. Check whether the loss of the optical fiber line is too large and exceeds the receiving range of the equipment.
C. Check whether the optical fiber interface is connected correctly, the local TX is connected with the remote RX, and the remote TX is connected with the local RX.
D. Check whether the optical fiber connector is well inserted into the device interface, whether the jumper type matches the device interface, whether the device type matches the optical fiber, and whether the device transmission length matches the distance. 

3. The circuit Link light is not on. The fault may be as follows:

A. Check whether the network cable is broken

B. Check whether the connection type matches: the network card and routers and other devices use crossover cables, and switches, hubs and other devices use straight-through cables.

C. Check whether the transmission rate of the device matches.

4. The network packet loss is serious, and the possible faults are as follows:

A. The electrical port of the transceiver does not match the interface of the network device, or the duplex mode of the device interface at both ends.

B. There is a problem with the twisted pair cable and the RJ-45 head. Check it.

C. The optical fiber connection problem, whether the jumper is aligned with the device interface, whether the pigtail matches the jumper and the coupler type, etc.

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5. After the optical fiber transceiver is connected, the two ends cannot communicate

A. The optical fibers are reversed, and the optical fibers connected to TX and TR are reversed

B. The connection between the RJ45 interface and the external device is incorrect (pay attention to straight-through and splicing)

C. The optical fiber interface (ceramic ferrule) does not match. This fault is mainly reflected in the 100M transceiver with optoelectronic mutual control function. For example, if the pigtail of the APC ferrule is connected to the transceiver of the PC ferrule, it will not be able to communicate normally, but Connecting to non-optical mutual control transceivers has no effect.

6. On and off phenomenon

A. It may be that the optical path attenuation is too large. At this time, the optical power meter can be used to measure the optical power of the receiving end. If it is around the receiving agility range, it can be basically judged that the optical path is faulty within the range of 1-2dB.

B. It may be that the switch connected to the transceiver is faulty. At this time, replace the switch with a PC, that is, the two transceivers are directly connected to the PC, and the two ends are pinged.

C. It may be the failure of the transceiver. At this time, you can connect both ends of the transceiver to the PC (not through the switch). After the two ends have no problem with PING, transfer a large file (100M) from one end to the other, and observe its If the speed is very slow (files under 200M are transmitted for more than 15 minutes), it can be basically judged that the transceiver is faulty.
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7. After a period of communication, the machine crashes, that is, it cannot communicate, and it returns to normal after restarting
This phenomenon is generally caused by the switch. The switch will perform CRC error detection and length check on all the received data. The packets with errors will be discarded, and the correct packets will be forwarded. However, some erroneous packets in this process cannot be detected in CRC error detection and length verification. Such packets will not be sent or discarded during the forwarding process, and they will accumulate in the dynamic buffer ( buffer), it can never be sent out, and when the buffer is full, it will cause the switch to crash. Because restarting the transceiver or restarting the switch can make the communication return to normal at this time, users usually think that the problem is the transceiver.

8. Transceiver test method
If you find a problem with the transceiver connection, please test as follows to find the cause of the failure:

A. In the near-end test, the computers at both ends are pinged. If the PING can pass, it is confirmed that there is no problem with the fiber optic transceiver. If the near-end test cannot communicate, it can be judged that the fiber optic transceiver is faulty.

B. Remote test, the computers at both ends are PING. If PING fails, it must check whether the optical path connection is normal and whether the transmit and receive power of the optical fiber transceiver is within the allowed range.

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