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What Is Splitter In Optical Fiber

Optical fiber splitter is a device that is used to realize the energy of light waves. It distributes the light energy transmitted in one fiber to two or more fibers in a predetermined proportion, the light energy transmitted in a plurality of optical fibers can also be combined into a single optical fiber.
What Is Splitter In Optical Fiber

Fiber OPTIC SPLITTER, also called optical SPLITTER, is one of the most important passive devices in optical FIBER links.
It is used to realize the light wave energy shunt and shunt devices.
M × N is commonly used to denote that a splitter has m inputs and N outputs.


According to the principle of optical SPLITTER, optical SPLITTER can be divided into FBT SPLITTER and PLC SPLITTER.
The FBT SPLITTER is a method of scrambling two (or more) fiber optic fibers without the coating,
the special waveguide structure with double cones is formed in the heating region by melting at high temperatures and stretching to both sides at the same time.
Different splitting ratios can be obtained by controlling the twist angle and the stretching length of the fiber.
Finally, the taper area is solidified on the quartz substrate by a solidified adhesive and inserted into the stainless copper tube.

FBT SPLITTER


PLC SPLITTER is made by medium or semiconductor process (photolithography, etching, developing, etc.),
the optical waveguide is formed on the medium or semiconductor substrate, and the branch and distribution function is realized,
the optical waveguide array is located on the upper surface of the chip, the shunt function is integrated on the chip, and the shunt function is realized on the chip.
Finally, the two ends of the chip are coupled with the input end and the output end of the multi-channel fiber array and packaged.

PLC SPLITTER

Introduction to PLC Splitter

Chip

At present, high-quality chip manufacturers have SHIJIA, OLKOPTO, South Korean wooriro, and so on.

Fiber Cable

G657A2 fiber is more expensive than G657A1 fiber in terms of fiber type.

Specification

the Regular plc splitter is usually 1 × 2/4/8/32/64/128,

the Special plc splitter is typically 1 × 3/6/12/24 and is more expensive.

Common and Special plc splitter production process is the same, with the main detection wavelength 1310/1490/1550 nm.

The 1 × 5/7/9/17 optical splitter is even more special. It uses an output fiber as a cascaded connection to an ordinary PLC.

The detection wavelength was 1310/1490/1550/1625/1650nm.

Advantages

(1) the loss is not sensitive to the wavelength of light, so it can meet the transmission needs of different wavelengths.

(2) the spectrum is even, and the signal can be distributed to the user evenly.

(3) compact structure, small size, can be directly installed in the existing various transfer box, does not need to leave a large installation space.

(4) there are many channels for single device, which can reach more than 32 channels.

(5) the multi-channel cost is low, the more branches, the more obvious the cost advantage. The core technology component of the 2PLC splitter is the chip

Pros and Cons of FBT splitter

Pros

(1) the taper coupler has more than 20 years of history and experience, many pieces of equipment and technology only need to be used, and the development cost is only a few tens of PLC even a few hundred

(2) the raw materials are readily available in the form of quartz substrates, fiber optics, heat-shrinkable tubes, stainless steel tubes, and less glue, for a total of less than $1. The investment depreciation cost of machines and instruments is lower, and the cost of low-channel splitters such as 1 × 2,1 × 4 is lower.

(3) the split ratio can be real-time monitored according to the need, and the unequal splitter can be made.

Cons

(1) the loss is sensitive to the optical wavelength, so the device should be selected according to the wavelength, which is a fatal defect in the process of using the three-network-in-one because the optical signal transmitted in the three-network-in-one has 1310nm, 1490nm, 1550nm and so on.

(2) the uniformity is poor, which refers to the change of insertion loss at each output end of the optical splitter. The maximum difference of 1X4 is about 1.5 DB, and the larger difference is above 1 × 8, which can not ensure the uniform spectral distribution and may affect the overall transmission distance.

(3) the insertion loss (TDL) is the ratio of output optical power to input optical power of a certain port. The insertion loss is made up of two parts: one is the additional loss and the other is the spectral ratio factor; the insertion loss is not the same because the spectral ratio of the device is different, and there is no specification in the standard.

(4) the volume of the multiplexer (such as 1 × 16,1 × 32) is larger, the reliability is lower, and the installation space is limited.

The comparison of FBT splitter and PLC splitter

Both devices have their advantages in performance and price, and both technologies are constantly being upgraded to overcome their shortcomings.

The FBT splitter is solving the problems such as the small number of one-time taper-pulling and the poor uniformity

PLC splitter are also making great efforts to reduce the cost.

At present, the cost of the two devices is almost the same above 1X8, and the price of planar waveguide splitters will be better with the increase of splitters.

In some applications where the size and wavelength of light are not very sensitive, especially in the case of less branch,

it is more affordable to choose the taper optical splitter.

Such as independent data transmission selection of 1310nm FBT splitter.

The TV video network may choose the 1550nm FBT splitter.

PLC splitters should be used in the case of multi-wavelength optical transmission and many users, such as three-in-one, FTTH, and so on.

Specifications for optical splitters

Insertion loss

PLC SPLITTER

The insertion loss of an optical splitter is the number of DB of each output relative to the input light loss.

plc splitter Insertion loss

Additional losses

The additional loss is defined as the number of DB of optical power loss relative to the total optical power loss of all output ports.

For optical fiber couplers, the additional loss is an index of the quality of the device manufacturing process, which reflects the inherent loss of the device manufacturing process.

The insertion loss only indicates the output power status of each output port, which not only has the inherent loss factor but also considers the influence of spectral ratio.

Therefore, the difference in insertion loss between different fiber couplers can not reflect the quality of the device.

Beam ratio

The splitting ratio is defined as the output power ratio of each output port of the optical splitter.

In the system application, we should determine the proper split ratio according to the light power of the actual system optical node.

The splitting ratio of an optical splitter depends on the wavelength of the transmitted light,

for example, an optical splitter that transmits 1.31 microns of light has a 50:50 split ratio between the two outputs;

At 1.5 ΜM, it becomes 70:30(this happens because the splitter has a certain bandwidth, that is, the bandwidth of the optical signal transmitted when the split ratio is constant).

So when you order an optical splitter, you have to specify the wavelength.

Isolation

The degree of isolation refers to the ability of one optical path of an optical splitter to isolate the optical signals in other optical paths.

In the actual system application, the isolation degree often needs to achieve 40 DB above the device, otherwise, it will affect the performance of the whole system.

Directionality:

In an optical splitter, directivity describes the effect of incoming light from an output on adjacent outputs.

PDL

PDL is defined as the ratio of the maximum power to the minimum power after the different polarization states pass through the device to be measured, which is expressed in the form of the logarithm.

In the field of communication and sensing, PDL is a very important indicator, it reflects the sensitivity of a device to different polarization states.

Applications of optical splitter

1. All types of Fiber-optic communication systems 2. Fiber optic LAN, CATV 3. FTTH, FTB 4. Test equipment, optical fiber amplifier

Features of optical splitter:

1. Low loss 2.1%. Low polarization sensitivity 3. Low insertion loss against environmental change

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